In this brief article from 1980, Professor James A. Beckford examines the ways in which Scientology amply satisfies traditional social-scientific definitions of religion. These include functional definitions (those that focus attention...
In this article, originally published in 1999, Professor M. Darrol Bryant presents an analysis and review of Scientology as a new religion in its historical, social, cultural and, of course, theological contexts. This includes comparisons with other religions,...
迪恩 M. 凱利著
In this report from 1996, legal scholar and Methodist minister Dean M. Kelley addresses the question of “whether Scientology is a religion in a legal sense,” including according to criteria then acknowledged by the Internal Revenue Service in the United...
In this article from 1995, Professor David Chidester provides a scholarly examination of the Church of Scientology—its beliefs, rituals, ethics, experiences, organization and history—in the South African context. There are numerous Churches in South Africa,...
In this article, originally published in 1999, Professor Régis Dericquebourg affirmatively answers the question “Is Scientology a Religion?” through a systematic examination of its cosmology, theology, anthropology, system of ethics, ceremonies, organization,...
法蘭克 K. 弗林博士著
What is a religion? How—objectively and subjectively—do we know one when we see it? In this article from 1999, Professor Frank K. Flinn lists three marks, or characteristics, of religion: beliefs or doctrines about the nature of life; religious...
In this article, originally published in 1999, Professor Alejandro Frigerio addresses the question of whether and in what ways Scientology counts as a religion, by surveying various contemporary definitions at play in the social sciences. As Dr. Frigerio...
In this article, originally published in 1999, Dr. Urbano Alonso Galan outlines—“in an objective and scientific view of the matter”—four aspects that demonstrate Scientology’s rich and inherent religious nature: philosophy and doctrine, ritual,...
In this article from 1995, Professor Harri Heino considers, in his capacity as a Finnish scholar of religion whether the Church of Scientology qualifies as a religious denomination. Its true and inherent nature, he unequivocally concludes, is decidedly...
In this article, Professor Lonnie D. Kliever examines and answers two questions: (1) Is Scientology a religion, and (2) Are Scientology Churches places of worship? “I am convinced by reason of my professional training and scholarly research,” Dr. Kliever...
Emerging in the early 1950s, the Scientology religion since its inception has drawn much interest over the years from religious scholars around the world.
This study contains four brief analyses from the hundreds of existing studies published on...
In this article from 1977, Professor G. C. Oosthuizen of South Africa offers an analysis of Scientology in comparison with other religious traditions, including Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Judaism and Christianity. He brings to bear his perspective...
In this piece from 1977, Professor Geoffrey Parrinder discusses the religious nature of Scientology, based on his own academic study and visits to Church sites in England such as Saint Hill Manor, which is now preserved as an L. Ron Hubbard...
In this article from 1983, Professor Dario Sabbatucci puts the history and theology of Scientology in morphological context with reference to Buddhism, Christianity, Christian Science, Bahá’í and Hinduism. In this regard, Dr. Sabbatucci focuses his...
邁克爾 A. 希維瑟博士著
In this article from 1995, Dr. Michael A. Sivertsev describes the process by which Scientologists come to self-identify as such, in spiritual and religious terms, in societies (such as in his homeland of Russia) that have experienced periods of secularization....
In this article from 1996, Dr. Christiaan Vonck analyzes the religious nature of Scientology on the basis of its teaching and practices. When examining Scientology, he sees points of comparison with other religious systems, including Christian Science,...
In this piece originally published in 1999, Professor Bryan Ronald Wilson systematically analyzes Scientology’s religious systems and doctrines and places them in comparative context with Buddhism, Hinduism, Christian Science, Judaism, and Catholic and...
In this joint report, Drs. Juha and Marja Pentikäinen of Finland describe “five dimensions of religion”—cognitive, emotional, behavioral, social, and cultural—and examine and evaluate the senses in which these are reflected in their case...
Scientology is a new religion. In fact, it was the only major world religion to emerge in the twentieth century and in only sixty years Scientology has expanded from its American origin points to take root throughout the world—with new...
In this study from 1996, Haji Muhammad al-Qaaim Safa Sawada examines Scientology theology, scriptures and ceremonies—first in their own right and then in comparison with other religious traditions, namely indigenous Japanese religions, with which...
In this study, Haji Muhammad al-Qaaim Safa Sawada compares Scientology and Islam, enhanced by his perspective as a Muslim living in Japan. Numerous parallels between the two religions are presented, including an affirmation of the spiritual...
In this article, originally published in 1995, Professor Bryan Ronald Wilson surveys social challenges facing new religious movements, in particular the problem of intolerance. As a new religion becomes older, it tends to attain a greater degree of acceptance...
In this article from 1995, Professor Bryan Ronald Wilson surveys methodological issues that arise in defining a religion, especially when problematized by the fact that new religions, such as Scientology, emerged in the modern era to meet modern spiritual...
In this legal statement from 2002, Professor Bryan Ronald Wilson evaluates whether the Church of Scientology’s congregational services merit the label of religious worship and compares them with other traditions. He concludes that Scientology services...
L. Ron Hubbard founded the Sea Organization in 1967 to assist with advanced research operations and supervise Church organizations around the world....
朗尼 D. 克利佛博士著
In this article from 1995, Professor Lonnie D. Kliever briefly surveys the history of apostasy in various religious traditions and then examines the unreliability of apostates (ex-members) of new religious movements. “I am convinced by reason of my own...
In this article from 1994, Professor Bryan Ronald Wilson briefly describes the history of apostasy—for instance in Roman Catholic and Protestant Christian churches—as a means to compare and contrast contemporary understandings of apostasy with respect...